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2014年5月27日星期二

魏京生:纪念一九八九年的英雄们(附魏京生谈纪念六四25周年)

图为魏京生(右)去年参加全美学自联等在DC中使馆前举行悼念六四24周年的活动


今年的六月四号,是1989年大屠杀25周年。很多年轻人已经不清楚那是怎么一回事了,但是四十岁以上的人恐怕还不会忘记。共产党也没有忘记,在每年的这个时间,他们都如临大敌,恐惧万分。最近一个月以来对异议人士和宗教人士加强了镇压,就是和六四25周年有关。

二十五年前的今天,正是人民民主运动轰轰烈烈进行的时候。也是邓小平、李鹏等人调动军队,准备屠杀老百姓的时候。当时学生和老百姓真的很天真,真的相信人民解放军不会对老百姓开枪。成千上万的北京市民聚集在天安门广场和街道上试图保护广场上要求民主和反腐败的学生。

就在六月四日凌晨,军队开进了北京。坦克和机枪向街道和广场上的人群扫射,成千上万的学生和市民死伤。被激怒的市民们进行了英勇的反抗。他们用石头和酒瓶投向坦克,进行着英勇但是没有希望的抗争。天安门广场和街道上血流成河,全国人民都陷入了悲痛和沮丧之中。

谁说中国人没有骨气,没有勇气?看看单独一人阻止坦克前进的年轻人。那个形象已经成为全世界媒体的经典形象,二十五年来被反复用在各种媒体上。再看看那些面对机枪坦克奋不顾身扔出石头和酒瓶的人,你能说中国人都是软骨头吗?

有一种舆论,说这些奋不顾身的年轻人不值得,是一时冲动犯了傻。我怀疑这是统治者们散布的谣言,以便软化老百姓的反抗精神。统治者们希望老百姓都像小绵羊一样任人宰割。无耻文人们就会散布舆论软化人们的骨气和勇气。

遗憾的是,这种软化的功夫有一部分成功。比如八九年就有许多的父母支持民主和反腐败,但是阻止自己的孩子参加运动。他们甚至把孩子们锁在家里,深怕自己的孩子遭到屠杀。父母之心很容易理解。但是不愿自己承担社会责任的心态,正是软化功夫产生的效果。

我为什么认为八九年的牺牲者们并非不值得呢?除了他们的英勇精神永远是我们大家的榜样之外,最重要的一点,就是让老百姓看清了专制政权的本质。几十年的洗脑灌输,使得大多数人不懂得专制政权的狼子野心。他们头脑里的共产党似乎真的是个爱人民的政权;军队也真的是人民的子弟兵。

一九八九年的枪炮声振聋发聩,惊醒了大多数沉浸在虚假现象中的老百姓。人们不是从理论上,而是从活生生的现实中了解到:这个党不是人民的党,它是一个专制的、属于一小撮官僚资产阶级的党;这支军队也不是什么人民的子弟兵,而是受一小撮贪官污吏操纵的党卫军。

人民就像多年受骗的人一样,一旦认识到自己受骗的现实,就会考虑今后的出路。他们不会再相信骗子们的谎言。这是二十五年来中国人思想大转变的主要原因,这是任何宣传都达不到的深刻的转变。谁说英雄们死得不值?能让十三亿人民醒悟过来,他们的血没有白流。

共产党自己给自己辩解,说是没有那场大屠杀,中国就会天下大乱,民不聊生。这可真是天方夜谭。人民要求反腐败和民主,就会天下大乱吗?这个世界上的民主国家多了去了,没听说那家民主了就会天下大乱。

反倒是民主之后能够有效地遏制腐败。所谓天下大乱,实际上就是乱了贪官污吏们的专制的天下,乱了他们稳稳当当剥削欺压老百姓的天下。这才是他们天下大乱论的真实想法。而这个天下大乱正是老百姓所期望的,能够摆脱压迫剥削的希望。这是英雄们为之流血牺牲的目的。

受贪官污吏和奸商们收买的无耻文人们还有一种说法。他们说没有那场大屠杀,就没有二十多年来的经济发展成就。被网友们评为十大恶人之首的,阿里巴巴公司的老板马云,就是这种无耻文人的典型。从网民们的觉悟来看,没有几个人再相信这种谎言。

二十多年来的经济发展,首先是工人、农民和商人们努力的结果,其次是国际贸易敞开的结果。更重要的是经济规律在起作用。也就是说追赶先进国家的后进国家经济发展速度,必然比探索者要快得多。有些发展中的大国甚至能达到百分之四十多的增长率。中国应该算是比较慢的。

而且这几个主要因素并不是共产党的功劳。这和屠杀人民有什么关系吗?说屠杀带来了经济发展,这种无耻可以说是炉火纯青,登峰造极了。这只能说明帮共产党散布谣言的无耻文人,既没有骨气也没有良心。但决不能把这顶帽子扣在中国老百姓身上。

如果说八九年时的老百姓,还不很明确自己的目标,没有给民主运动添加足够的力量,那么现在的人民已经非常明确了民主自由的目标。那些无耻文人的欺骗宣传已经越来越不能产生效果了。共产党内的大多数有识之士也正在发出越来越强的政治改革之声。

在这个大背景之下,选择革命还是等待改良,共产党以什么方式下台,以及下台之后由什么人来领导中国,这才是现在人们争论的主要问题。



聆听魏京生先生的相关录音,请访问:
http://www.weijingsheng.org/RFA/RFA2014/WeiJS140523on1989heroes.mp3

(撰写并录音于2014年5月23日。自由亚洲电台播出。)

My Commemoration of the Heroes of 1989 Democracy Movement in China
-- Wei Jingsheng


June 4 of this year is the 25th anniversary of the June 4 Massacre in
Beijing.  Many young people already do not what it was.  However, people
who are older than 40 will not forget.  The Chinese Communist Party has
not forgotten either.  Every year around this time, the Communist regime
is scared as if facing a major enemy.  In the last month, the regime has
stepped up repression against dissident and religious people, because of
the 25th anniversary of the June 4 Massacre.

Twenty-five years ago today, the Chinese people were vigorously conducting
a democracy movement. In response, it is also the time when Deng Xiaoping
and Li Peng mobilized the army to get ready to massacre the people.  At
that time, indeed the students and the people were really na?ve.  They
really believed that the People 's Liberation Army would not shoot at
Chinese people.  Tens of thousands of Beijing residents gathered in
Tiananmen Square and the streets trying to protect the students on
Tiananmen Square who were demanding democracy and anti-corruption.

In the early morning on June 4, the army moved into Beijing.  Tanks and
machine guns shot into the crowd on the streets and the square, resulting
in thousands of casualties of students and citizens.  Enraged citizens had
heroic resistance.  They threw stones and bottles at the tanks to conduct
a heroic yet hopeless struggle.  Blood was running on the streets and the
Square in rivers.  People all over China fell into grief and depression.

Who would say that the Chinese do not have a backbone and courage?  Look
at that single young man who stopped tanks from moving forward.  That
image has become an iconic image of the world's media, and has been used
repeatedly in a variety occasions for the past 25 years.  Look at people
who threw out stones and bottles without concern of their own safety, even
as they were facing tanks and machine guns.  How could anyone say that the
Chinese people are spineless?

There is a claim that it was not worth it for these young people, who were
not concerned of their own safety, that they were committing a silly
impulse.  I suspect that this claim is a rumor spread by the rulers in
order to soften people's spirit of resistance.  Rulers always hope people
are like little lambs ready to be slaughtered.  There are shameless
literati that help to distribute this kind of rumor in an effort to soften
people's backbone and courage.

Unfortunately, this effort of softening has been partially successful.
For example, in 1989, there were many parents who supported democracy and
anti-corruption, yet would prevent their own children from participating
in this movement.  These parents even locked up their children, fearing
that their children would be massacred.  It is easy to understand the
hearts of these parents.  However, the mentality of being unwilling to
bear their own social responsibility is exactly due to this effort of
softening.

Why do I think the victims of 1989 were not wasted?  In addition to their
heroic spirit that will always be an example to us all, the most important
thing is that they let people see the nature of this totalitarian regime.
After decades of brainwashing indoctrination by the Communists, most
people did not know how sinister the totalitarian regime is.  These people
really thought that the Communist regime loves the people and the army
really is the people's army.

The 1989 Massacre of gunfire and cannon was loud enough to arouse the
insensible.  It awakened most of the people who were immersed in the
phenomenon of false security.  Not only from theory, but also from living
reality, people learned that the Communist Party is not the party of the
people; it is an authoritarian party that belongs to a handful
bureaucratic bourgeoisie; that the army is not the people 's army, but the
Schutzstaffel manipulated by a handful of corrupt officials.

Just like people who were cheated for years, once the Chinese discover the
reality that they were deceived, they will find the way out in the future.
 They will not continue believing the lies of the crooks.  The 1989
Massacre is the main reason that the Chinese people's thought has had a
major change in the past 25 years.  This deep change could not be reached
through any kind of propaganda.  Who would say the deaths of these 1989
heroes were not worth it?  Their blood is not wasted when they wake up 1.3
billion people.

The Communist regime has been defending itself by claiming that China
would be in chaos and people would be destitute if they had not clamped
down with blood.  This argument is really a fairy tale.  Would China be
chaotic if people demand democracy and anti-corruption?  There are many
democratic countries in this world.  Have we seen a country become chaotic
because of democracy?

Rather, we see democracy effectively curb corruption.  The so-called chaos
is really chaos to these corrupt officials of the dictatorship, leading
them to be unable to firmly exploit and oppress the people.  This is their
true agenda for their ??chaos theory.  And this kind of chaos would be
what the people wanted.  It is people's hope to get rid of oppression and
exploitation.  This hope was the purpose of those heroes whose blood was
shed on June 4, 1989.

There is another saying by the shameless literati who were bought by
corrupt officials and profiteers.  They claim that without the June 4
Massacre, there would not be the achieved economic development of the last
more than twenty years.  Jack Ma, the boss of Alibaba who is the person
rated as most wicked by netizens, is this kind of typical shameless
literati.  Observing from the consciousness of the netizens, we know that
there are very few people who believe these lies.

Regarding the past twenty years of economic development, the first credit
is due to the hard work of workers, peasants and business people, followed
by the opening of international trade.  More importantly, it was the
economic rules at work.  A backward country catching up with advanced
countries is bound to have faster growth than these explorers.  Some large
developing countries can achieve even more than forty percent growth.
Compared with that, China is relatively slow.

And these few major factors are not the credit of the Communist Party.  Do
we see these factors having anything to do with massacring people?  Saying
the June 4 Massacre brought economic development in China is really a
culmination of shamelessness.  It only shows that these literati who help
the Communist Party spread rumors have neither spines nor conscience.  But
by no means does this mean the Chinese people are spineless or without
conscience.

If the people in 1989 were not very clear about their goals, and did not
add enough power to the democracy movement, then people in China now have
very clear goals of democracy and freedom.  The propaganda to deceive
issued by the shameless literati has become increasingly ineffective.
Most people with breadth of vision within the Communist Party are also
demanding louder for political reform.

With this big background, choosing revolution or waiting for reform,
determining in what way the Communist Party is to step down and who should
lead China after the Communist Party steps down, are the exact major
issues of debate now.


To hear Mr. Wei Jingsheng's related commentary, please visit:
http://www.weijingsheng.org/RFA/RFA2014/WeiJS140523on1989heroes.mp3

(Written and recorded on May 23, 2014.  Broadcasted by Radio Free Asia.)


【附录】
魏京生谈纪念六四25周年

法广/作者 小山
今年六月四日是1989年春天始发的中国青年学生以及民众反腐败争取民主自由运动遭到当局血腥镇压25周年的祭日。尽管六四事件已经过去25年,外界评论六四事件的记忆和影响在中国被淡化减弱,但六四事件,连同六四这个日子与数字本身在中国仍然是敏感内容的客观事实,尤其在今年成为被非常严厉禁止的禁区,对六四事件的纪念仍然不以人们的意志为转移而跃上中国政治前台。今日欧洲专题节目采访流亡美国的持不同政见人士魏京生。
法广:
又到六四纪念日,今年的纪念六四中国国内外的大背景大环境有什么新的变化?

魏京生:
我想还是有变化的。因为六四以后曾经有那么十年的时间,大家都很消沉,避谈这个问题。但最近这几年谈论六四问题越来越多了。有要求平反的,有要求追究责任的,包括像李鹏这样的人,六四的第二号人物,邓小平是第一号,李鹏是第二号,是主持戒严和屠杀的,连他都出来为自己辩解,把责任推给邓小平,意思就是说责任不是他的。所以可以说,气氛整个都在变化。我认为国际社会还是继续保持以往的势头,可是国内的老百姓关注六四问题的越来越多了。
很多人都在问,再来一次六四,老魏你觉得老百姓会是怎么样,军队会怎么样,当局会怎么样?问这个问题的人非常多。
法广:
中共18大以后,中国的领导层发生了重要的变化,在人们期待中国朝民主开放的方向改变之时,中国却出现了政治上更为激进保守,对各种民主开放的追求镇压与钳制更为严厉,您认为这是为什么?

魏京生:
我觉得应当从两个方面讲。一方面共产党这个政权确实是摇摇欲坠,而越是到摇摇欲坠的时候,人们就会很紧张,共产党本身就很紧张,加强镇压。另外一个方面,共产党内部的斗争越来越激烈。共产党顽固保守派给予当局的压力也很大,所以当局也不得不做出一些姿态出来。比如抓些人,做做样子出来。做给这些顽固派看,因为他们觉得这些压力很大,不得不这么做。
法广:
六四的记忆在中国被淡化被抹去,这在中国社会引发了什么样的后果呢 ?
魏京生:
我想被淡化的一个背景是这个事件很惨痛,死了那么多人,没有什么结果反而还倒退了,大部分人,特别是老百姓有一种失望的感觉。在上个世纪90年代很少谈论了。问题是社会矛盾还存在,共产党的压迫还存在,老百姓的痛苦每天都在发生着。这个现实又让老百姓重新思考六四的问题了。六四民主运动继而被屠杀引出很多问题,大家都要思考:现在应当怎么做,要吸取六四的经验教训。
法广:
经济发展能够抹杀六四造成的冲击与后果吗?

魏京生:
我想这完全不是一回事。有些人仅仅从向钱看的角度来看,认为中国钱多了,钱多了就会怎么怎么样。其实中国钱再多,生活也不见得就会生活得更好。何况现在钱多只是一小部分人钱多,甚至很多人都被列入世界富豪榜了。可是普通老百姓他们的钱多了吗?也许从钱的数量上讲老百姓可能比过去多得多了,但从实际消费来看,从人民的生活环境来看,就未必比过去多的多。
中国现在有贫困问题,就有上亿的人没有脱贫,受穷的标准甚至比联合国规定的贫困标准还要低。然后是教育问题,普通的老百姓的教育负担问题;年轻人结婚住房问题;再年轻的上学受教育学费问题;还有医疗问题,很多人看不起病,因为医疗越来越贵看不起病;等等等等。这些都是很现实的问题压在人们的身上。所以人们思考为什么我们的生活这么糟糕,既然是经济发展,越是经济发展人们就是越要思考这样的问题。你一说就是中国经济世界排第一了,可是老百姓的生活怎么会有这么多的问题解决不了呢?这些问题都促使人们重新思考这个政权要不要让它存在了。现实让大家思考这些问题,六四的时候不管大家说的多么重,真正的问题是你得改一改,你这政府,共产党一党独裁制度,大家觉得不行了,应当改一改。现在人们重新思考这个问题,我认为这是中国快要进步的前夜一个大变化。
法广:
您认为在这样的背景下中国当局正在采取哪一些举措或者手法来转移人们追求六四真相以及追究六四责任的关注呢?

魏京生:
我想当局会封锁所有相关的消息,现在最好的媒体就是网络媒体,比较自由,传播的也快,大家看起来也方便。但可以看到当局对网络的封锁,不仅是六四的事情,包括谈论民主的,谈论改革的凡是能够吸引老百姓的话题都被封锁了。甚至过去网络封锁情况不是特别好的情况下,当局想出了新的办法。因为网络上往往谈论问题谈得多了,谈论的观点大家喜欢,形成了一种网络大V的文化,形成网络上群众领袖,大家都喜欢看他的东西,大V对人们的影响力比较大,当局就采取射人先射马擒贼先擒王的办法,把这些大V都抓起来,至少先抓几个,吓得其他大V都不敢说话了。这一招可能比过去单纯封锁网络还要有效果。所以说共产党镇压的手段也在不断翻新。
法广:
尽管中国当局避免谈论而且也禁止谈论六四,您认为中国当局能够避开得了六四的话题吗?

魏京生:
你想连李鹏都出来想撇开六四那就证明很难避开六四。因为那一代人都在那儿呢!10亿中国人都经历了这个事件,你再怎么封锁,在大家的记忆里面你是封锁不了的。除非大家不愿意谈论,但大家现在又重新开始谈论了,你怎么能够封锁得了呢?而且这又是一个现实的问题。
在全世界范围内尤其是在中国之外,一直没有停止谈论这些问题。实际上网络已经是很难完全封锁了,很多人会翻墙出来,他们尤其是小青年看到一些信息觉得很新鲜,他会自己用伊妹儿传给他的朋友,这也是你封锁不了的。我认为躲是躲不过去的,那么大的一个现实的问题你怎么能够掩盖得了?你怎么能够躲得过去?所以必须现实地考虑问题,采取措施。
共产党内部也有很多人觉得应当改革,不能老是停留在过去。
法广:
今年中国纪念六四的情况会不会引发新的一波社会维权以及各种各样的民生民主的诉求?

魏京生:
有这种可能。因为维权运动兴起以后,各个地方都可以观察得到数量是越来越多的维权,反抗暴政的手段也越来越强烈,很多地方甚至就是暴力反抗。你用暴力镇压我,我就用暴力反抗。所以有一个重要的话题放在这儿,如果大家能够在国内搞起一个运动的话,这个运动马上就会像六四一样蔓延向全国,响应的人肯定会非常多。这就是共产党非常紧张的一个原因,当局维稳的矛头就是对准突发事件,就怕某一个突发事件引发全国行动。就像突尼斯那样。
所以我觉得当然也不一定肯定就在这一时期,这一六四时期,因为共产党对六四事情是全力动员,甚至把群众领袖这样的人物,所谓敏感人物吧,都把他们拘起来,弄一帮警察看着你,或者采取把你送到外地这样的措施。不能说这些措施完全没有效果,这些措施确实是把发生运动的苗头压下去了。
但是也不一定非要是发生在六四事情期间,维权运动让越来越多的抗暴发展越来越强烈以后,说不定在什么时间什么地点就像在突尼斯似的,一个小贩自焚就会引起很大的事变。这种事情随时随地都有可能发生。
法广:
您预见今年在中国国外纪念六四会是一个什么样的情况呢?

魏京生:
一方面爱好民主自由的人们,包括民运人士都回去积极组织纪念活动,在各个地方,包括在华盛顿,纽约,巴黎这些大城市,特别是在香港,肯定会举行大的活动。
但是另一方面共产党也没有闲着,他们也在用各种方法破坏六四纪念,他们生怕海外的六四纪念会给国内带来很大的鼓励,于是就有突发事件,所以当局很害怕这些,采取各种各样的方法。
举个例子:华盛顿的六四纪念活动每年都是在中国驻美国大使馆门前举行,但是共产党采取了很多手段,想让纪念六四活动不在大使馆前举行,引导别的地方去搞,这样象征性就没有那样强烈了。为这么一点事情,他们花了很大的功夫,甚至很多以前隐藏的很好的,咱们不说特务吧,就是在民运内部隐藏的很好的这些人现在都跳出来了,坚决要把纪念六四活动从中国大使馆门前拉走。拉到别的地方,而且他们很有钱,提前几个月就在拉人。从这个角度看,共产党确实非常害怕六四这个话题,因为这个话题是那么一场大屠杀,给全中国人民造成很重大的影响,在人民心理上造成和大的影响,你怎么能够躲得过去呢?!我觉得共产党实在是不聪明,躲是躲不过去的,靠封锁是封锁不住的,完全靠镇压总有一天也会失控的。

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